Astrid Birch Kjærgaard

Master Student: Astrid Birch Kjærgaard
Specialisation: Oncology
Project: Systematic review of receptor tyrosin kinase inhibitors for canine neoplasia other than mast cell tumors
Master’s thesis brief:



Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) have antiangiogenic and anti-tumor effects in various human cancers. Two oral RTKIs are currently approved for use in dogs with mast cell tumors (MCTs), but a clinical benefit has been suggested in other types of canine neoplasia as well.


To evaluate the current evidence on whether treatment with RTKIs might benefit dogs with neoplasia other than MCT.


A systematic review was conducted by searching AGRICOLA, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Zoological Records, and Medline to identify articles published before November 20th, 2019. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed original research reports investigating the in vivo effect of RTKIs in dogs with spontaneous cancers other than MCTs.


Seven hundred publications were identified of which 59 were included; 1 randomized open-label controlled trial, 21 prospective clinical trials, 9 retrospective case series, and 28 case reports encompassing a total of 644 dogs treated with various RTKIs.

Conclusion and clinical importance:

Through the level of evidence was generally low, the identified publications suggest that RTKIs might convey a benefit in dogs with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, neuroendocrine neoplasms (apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas, thyroid tumors, heart base tumors, pheochromocytomas, and insulinomas), squamous cell carcinomas, lymphangiosarcoma, mammary tumors, and lymphoma. Further randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trials are recommended to better asses the biological effect of RTKIs in canine neoplasia other than MCT.